Samkhya philosophy is one of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism. It is most related to the Yoga school of Hinduism, and it is also the oldest of the six schools. Samkhya is dualistic, and it propounds that there is a fundamental difference between matter and consciousness.
The ultimate goal of Samkhya’s philosophy is to achieve liberation (Moksha) from the cycle of birth and death (Samsara). This can be achieved by gaining knowledge of the true nature of reality.
The Samkhya system is based on two main principles:
- The principle of duality (Dvaita): This principle states that there are two realities – Purusha and Prakriti. Purusha is pure consciousness while Prakriti is the material world.
- The principle of causality (Karya-Karana): This principle states that everything in the material world is caused by Purusha.
Samkhya philosophy is divided into two main schools:
- The Purva-Samkhya school: This school emphasizes the importance of yoga and meditation in achieving liberation.
- The Uttara-Samkhya school: This school emphasizes the importance of knowledge (jnana) in achieving liberation.
Samkhya philosophy has had a significant influence on other Indian philosophies, such as Yoga, Vedanta, and Kashmir Shaivism.