As per our ancient Hindu scriptures, Purushartha is classified into four categories:
Dharma, Artha, Kama, and Moksha
It is quiet ambiguous for a common man to understand the meaning of Dharma. We get always puzzled with our actions as right or wrong to justify in our conscience. A Right thing for some else becomes a wrong action/effect for some others. Is it a complex matter to contemplate? Not at all, Dharma is the principle of co-existence. Our Universe exists from immemorial times based on a strict code of conduct – live & let to live. As per science, the Universe is a mass of energy and the ultimate source of all type of energy for us is the SUN, the pivot or axle our system. So, the Sun is the ruler/ king of our system and the deeds of the Sun are the law of his regime. The deeds of the Sun are our Dharma:
· Energize everybody with out any discrimination
· Enlighten everybody who are in darkness
· Keep Punctuality, stability & selfless service without any expectation
· Never mind or discard of all adversities (clouds, rains, thunders etc.)
This is a familiar word for everybody, world is behind the pursuit of Artha means wealth. Amassing the material possessions by adopting the Dharma principles is called Artha. Wealth is for fulfilling our worldly matters and it is inevitable in the part of our life.
Most of us misunderstand the word ‘ Kama’ as sex or lust. But ‘Kama’ means all type of desires of our life. In spirituality, it is called the flames of our sense organs. The more you feed; the flames of the fire will go high and higher & decimate the body itself. So, restrict the urge of our mind is necessary to upkeep the body for achieving the next important factor of Purushartha- Moksha.
Moksha means complete freedom, relieving from all botherations of our life. Again, the Moksha is categorized into four types:
Salokya means maintaining friendship with the Lord or the Almighty. The friendship can be developed by selfless Karma yoga & performing Yagnyas, Offerings, Sacrifices etc as per the guidelines prescribed in Vedas like, Rajasooya yagnya, Brihaspathi yagnya etc. Salokya rewards you with heavenly life.
Sameepya is reach nearer to the Lord as a humble servant by surrendering everything at the feet of the Almighty. The benefits & losses or happiness & sorrows are considered as the ‘prasad’ of the Lord. This is called the ‘Niskama Bhakthi’ yoga which leads you to ‘Ananya Bhakti chaithanya’. Sameepya ensures absolute security & majestic life of happiness along with omnipresence.
Saroopya makes you a Diety, in other words, you will achieve all qualities of the God i.e. become a demigod. The path to attaining the state of Saroopya is Kriya Yoga or Yoga sadhana.
Sayoojya is the ultimate Moksha that dissolve you in Almighty, like crystals of salts immersed in sea. You lose the identity of self by unifying with the Almighty. This is considered as the superlative degree of all type of Mokshas. The only way of achieving Sayoojya is by Wisdom, i.e Gnyana Yoga.
Accordingly, the human life passes through four different stages:
Brahmacharya: to obtain knowledge through education,
Grihastha : to acquire wealth for maintaining family life,
Vanasprastha : to retire or relieve from the family responsibilities
Sanyasa : to attain sainthood for achieving ‘Moksha’.
Likewise, our Vedas are also arranged and organised in four different parts as Samhita, Brahmanam, Aranyakam and Upanishad.